Care of Children When Parents Die
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Care of Children When Parents Die
This document tells you the following:
- What is a will?
- Why make a will?
- What happens to your children and your property if you die without a will?
- How do you make a will valid?
- What conditions of wills exist?
DEATH IN THE FAMILY AND CARE OF CHILDREN
If one parent of a child is dead, generally the other parent will have custody. Who takes care of the children if both parents die? The answer depends on whether or not the parents have left a will. A will is a written document witnessed by others. It states how a person's property is to be divided after he or she dies. The writer can also direct who should take care of his or her children. Without a will, the courts and state laws decide who gets what a person owns and who cares for their children.
Parents may name a person in their will to be responsible for their minor children. This person is called a testamentary guardian, "the guardian of the child's physical person." Testamentary guardianship is a form of child custody. If the person named in the will refuses or is not available to act in that capacity, the court may appoint someone else.
The court may also appoint a guardian of the child's property. A guardian of the property has the duty to use the child's property only for the benefit of the child. Also, the guardian must report about the property management to the county probate court. In Georgia, both the probate and juvenile courts have the authority to appoint guardians when a child has no surviving parents.
INHERITING FAMILY PROPERTY
A. Inheriting Without a Will
Consider the following situations:
SITUATION 13 George wanted his wife (by a second marriage) to inherit his house. He often said he wanted his two children (by his first marriage) to inherit the family business. He did not make a will.
Will his wishes be carried out?
SITUATION 14 Carolyn was an illegitimate child. For much of her life, she lived with an aunt. As an adult, Carolyn made considerable money in real estate. She never married. Carolyn is killed in an accident. She did not make a will, but she did tell her lawyer she wanted most of her estate to go to her aunt when she died. However, her mother claims it all.
Will the court award the estate to Carolyn's mother?
If a person dies without a will, the person is said to have died intestate. Certain rules of inheritance known as intestacy laws apply. In effect, the legislature writes the deceased person's will because the person's property will be distributed according to the intestacy laws.
Following are some of Georgia's rules of inheritance that apply when a person dies intestate:
- If the person has no children, the spouse who survives will inherit the entire estate.
- If there are one or two children, the spouse and those children shall have an equal share of the estate. If there are more than two children, the spouse receives one third of the estate and the children divide the remaining two thirds.
- If an unmarried and childless person dies without a will, that person's father and mother inherit equal portions.
- If there is no mother or father, the order of inheritance is the brother(s) or sister(s) of the person who dies or their descendants. If there are no brothers or sisters or descendants of brothers or sisters, the grandparents of the person who dies, the person's aunts and uncles, and the person's cousins inherit-in that order. If there are no relatives, then the state will assume ownership of all property.
In Georgia, children born out of wedlock have been granted the same rights of inheritance from mothers as children born within a marriage. Also, mothers can now inherit from their children who have been born out of wedlock just as they can from children born within a marriage. However, the father of a child born out of wedlock cannot inherit from his child unless he has been established as the father in one of several ways as specified by Georgia law. Likewise, a child born out of wedlock cannot inherit from his or her father except under certain circumstances.
Inheritance is allowed if there is strong evidence of paternity and if the father treated the child as his own. The child may also inherit if genetic testing shows a 97 percent probability of paternity and the paternity is not successfully rebutted by other evidence.
What would happen in situations 13 and 14? In situation 13, all the property would be divided equally among the spouse and the two children. Everything-house and business-may have to be sold in order to divide it. In situation 14, Carolyn's mother will inherit Carolyn's entire estate.
B. About Wills
Making a Will
It is best to have a will prepared by a lawyer. In order to be enforced, a will must be made properly. It is required that a will be dated, and the signature must be properly witnessed by at least two people (three in some states) who do not inherit under the will. There are additional requirements.
If a person who has a valid will marries or has a child, the will is automatically void, with one exception. It is valid if it contains a paragraph saying that the will was made in contemplation of the upcoming change. Otherwise, after the change occurs, a new will is needed. Divorces are treated differently. If the party with the will divorces, the will remains valid. However, by law the ex-spouse does not receive any benefits.
It is wise to periodically review any will to be sure it is up to date. State laws may change. The family membership or property holdings may change.
Conditions of Wills
SITUATION 15 In his will, Arthur leaves all his money and property to the church. He leaves his wife and children nothing.
Is this arrangement legal?
In Georgia, a will maker is not required to leave any property to a spouse or children. In other states, the spouse and children are automatically entitled to a specified amount. However, in Georgia, a person can disinherit the entire family with a valid will, which is what Arthur did in situation 15. All of his property goes to the church.
Although a person can disinherit his or her family, he or she cannot deprive them entirely. Whether a parent or spouse dies with or without a will, a spouse and dependent children in Georgia have a statutory right to support, although the support can be relatively modest.
* Excerpted from An Introduction to Law in Georgia, Fourth Edition, published by the Carl Vinson Institute of Government, 1998 (updated 2004). The Vinson Institute is not responsible for errors in the online text. Content is for information only; in no way should the information in the book be considered legal advice to anyone on any matter for which there are legal implications. Any such matter should be specifically addressed with an attorney. The book is available for purchase ator by contacting the Publications Program, Carl Vinson Institute of Government, University of Georgia, 201 M. Milledge Avenue, Athens, GA 30602; telephone 706-542-6377; fax 706-542-6239.